Recently Submitted Homework Problems: Critical Thinking

4857. help me solve this critical thinking problem...It is probably the case that any statement, argument, theory and method of attaining some form of knowledge have some form of assumption.
Assumptions are ideas (values, beliefs, etc.) that we take for granted. They are often not explicitly or even implicitly included in the claim, argument, theory or method. But the claim and argument could not be made without the particular idea which is taken for granted. The same would go for the theory. And the method could not be used or applied without the assumption. In a sense, the assumed idea is built into or provides a foundation for the claim, argument, theory or method. To be aware of assumptions is an essential part of critical thinking.
Bertrand Russell has discussed an important assumption at the heart of scientific theory and the scientific method. He calls the assumption of the UNIFORMITY OF NATURE a "fundamental faith" which has never been proved. The point is, therefore, that one of humankind's most highly regarded methods of research, thinking, theorizing and practice has an UNDEMONSTRATED FAITH at its foundation. Without this unverified assumption, and, perhaps, unverifiable assumption, scientists could not do natural science.
Scientists not only assume that (1) humans can understand the order of the universe, they also assume (2) the universe is ordered. Based on these two assumptions, they seek to understand the order of the universe. Furthermore, the universe is assumed to be ordered not only in the present, but also from the past into the present and into the future. We assume that there is a UNIFORMITY OF NATURE since we assume that cause-effect relationships in the past will occur in the present (just as they did in the past) and they will recur in the future (just as they have in the past and just as they are occurring in the present).
I have expressed the UNIFORMITY OF NATURE in the form of an argument in order to test it. Is it a deductive argument? Is it an inductive argument?
P1 A caused B in the past
P2 A causes B in the present
C/: A will cause B in the future
This argument (Uniformity of Nature) says that A caused B in the past, and A causes B in the present, therefore A will cause B in the future.
Russell and David Hume claim that the assumption of the UNIFORMITY OF NATURE is not rational.
Hume thought that our minds are not using deductive logic when we assume the uniformity of nature"-i.e. "A will cause B in the future, as it is in the present and as it did in the past."
Therefore, simply explain why the above argument (Uniformity of Nature) is not a deductive argument: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (2 marks)

Secondly, explain why the above argument form is also not an inductive argument: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (4 marks)

Thirdly, explain the implications of this "irrational" assumption for both science and inductive logic: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (4 marks)
Note: (1 mark will be awarded for each relevant point)



(Answered)


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